kode adsense disini
Hot Best Seller

Vergil: Aeneid, Book VIII: A Vocabulary and Test Papers; By Tutors of University Correspondence College (Classic Reprint)

Availability: Ready to download

Excerpt from Vergil: Aeneid, Book VIII: A Vocabulary and Test Papers; By Tutors of University Correspondence College 67. Ima imus, 13, -um (superl. Of inferus), lowest, bottom. 68. Aethern aetherius, -a, -um, (ethereal), in the shy. Orientia oner, ertus, 4, to rise. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at Excerpt from Vergil: Aeneid, Book VIII: A Vocabulary and Test Papers; By Tutors of University Correspondence College 67. Ima imus, 13, -um (superl. Of inferus), lowest, bottom. 68. Aethern aetherius, -a, -um, (ethereal), in the shy. Orientia oner, ertus, 4, to rise. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.


Compare
kode adsense disini

Excerpt from Vergil: Aeneid, Book VIII: A Vocabulary and Test Papers; By Tutors of University Correspondence College 67. Ima imus, 13, -um (superl. Of inferus), lowest, bottom. 68. Aethern aetherius, -a, -um, (ethereal), in the shy. Orientia oner, ertus, 4, to rise. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at Excerpt from Vergil: Aeneid, Book VIII: A Vocabulary and Test Papers; By Tutors of University Correspondence College 67. Ima imus, 13, -um (superl. Of inferus), lowest, bottom. 68. Aethern aetherius, -a, -um, (ethereal), in the shy. Orientia oner, ertus, 4, to rise. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

30 review for Vergil: Aeneid, Book VIII: A Vocabulary and Test Papers; By Tutors of University Correspondence College (Classic Reprint)

  1. 4 out of 5

    Lisa

    “What god can help me tell so dread a story? Who could describe that carnage in a song - “ Well, the answer of course is Virgil, a poet of the era of Augustus’ Rome. Why does he write it? Many literary critics have condemned the Aeneid for being state propaganda. Of course it is. Openly, proudly so! Many others have condemned it for connecting strongly to other epic poems of the Ancient world, most notably of course Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. Of course it does. Openly, proudly so! The Aeneid is a “What god can help me tell so dread a story? Who could describe that carnage in a song - “ Well, the answer of course is Virgil, a poet of the era of Augustus’ Rome. Why does he write it? Many literary critics have condemned the Aeneid for being state propaganda. Of course it is. Openly, proudly so! Many others have condemned it for connecting strongly to other epic poems of the Ancient world, most notably of course Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. Of course it does. Openly, proudly so! The Aeneid is a perfect example of a change of imperial power and education from one dynasty or area in the world to another, a “translatio imperii et studii”. Whenever empires rise, and are in need of legitimacy, they make sure to incorporate literature, art and other cultural achievements of suppressed or defeated powers, thus creating a fictitious historical connection that justifies their claims to greatness and world dominance. The Greek culture has been widely exploited to establish a tradition of unbroken rule and lawful power in Europe, and the Aeneid is an early example of fiction supporting the dynastic claims of a whole people. Constructed as a sequel to the Iliad, and thus taking place at the same time as the Odyssey, it tells the story of Trojan refugee Aeneas and his family, who are on a quest to find a new home for themselves after surviving the destruction of Troy by the Greeks. After many adventures, mirroring Ulysses’ problematic navigation in the tricky waters of the Mediterranean, they land in the country where “fate” tells them to found a new empire based on Aeneas’ descendants. Here they turn from refugees to usurpers of power and fight a bloody war to finally declare themselves victors over the native peoples in the area which will become known as Rome, or Italy. So far, so good. Translatio imperii, check! Translatio studii? Roman culture is in many ways a direct copy and paste of earlier Greek achievements, and their Olympus is mostly identical, just renamed. But there are peculiarities within the Aeneid that give it a specific flavour and make it enjoyable to read. For example, Aeneas’ visit to the Underworld is hilarious, and he meets both past and future celebrities of his tribe. The modern reader may wonder how life in the Underworld works out practically, with Creusa, Dido, and eventually also Lavinia all joined together in their love for Aeneas? Is polygamy acceptable in the Underworld, if it is only practised as serial monogamy on earth? But those are amusing, theological reflections that the heroes do not dwell on. Much more interesting are the godly powers that support or oppose Aeneas’ cause, with Venus, his mother, being his most ardent advocate in Olympus, and with Juno being his most hateful enemy. A combination that puts Jupiter in a pickle, of course. Aeneas manages to have weapons of mass destruction delivered by the joint effort of Venus and Vulcan, and it is of peculiar interest to archaeologists that his shield carries the future of Rome written down for him: a prophetic text! Or a wonderfully amusing way to establish legitimacy through translatio historiae? Rewriting history when needed for political purposes is not an invention of Orwell’s 1984. Dante later added his own journey to the Underworld under the guidance of experienced traveller Virgil - translatio studii - as illustrated in The Divine Comedy, and beautifully painted by Delacroix, in another simultaneous leap forwards and backwards in history, creating connections between times and characters: What made me read the ancient text, and stick it out until the end, despite being frustrated at times when the war turned into repetitive, graphically described slaughter, involving heads cut open so that brains are split in half, and any other imaginable mutilation of human bodies, over page after page? There is the interesting question of heroic ideal, alive and terrifyingly deadly still in World War I and II, of “Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori”, the famous line from Virgil’s contemporary Horace’s Odes. One young man in the Aeneid puts it quite bluntly: if I win, I will bring home lots of booty, and if I fall, I will be an immortal hero. Either way, my father will be proud. There are the relationships between men and women, and the role of women in general. Camilla, the warrior virgin modelled on Amazons Hippolyta or Penthesilea, the mighty Carthaginian queen Dido, who has a strong mind of her own, and Lavinia, the booty for the winner in the war, are all different representatives of ancient women’s roles and status in society. For the modern reader, the goddesses in the Olympian council are more amusing types, playing the political advocates of the causes they support, fearlessly, adamantly, and in eternal frustration over the slow pace of the action, and over the cacophony of a polytheistic assembly, all with equal right to speak and lobby - and to which they add incessantly. Quite like international committees nowadays, weighing different claims, needs and justice against each other! General verdict: if you love mythology, historical processes as mirrored in fiction, graphic war scenes, unhappy love, and stormy seas, as well as the neverending story of human fight for power and legitimacy, then the Aeneid is highly recommended. I enjoyed it all, and will close with a bow to Dido, my favourite ancient, tragic heroine so far! She did not really get a chance, representing Carthage. Her suicide was a necessary construction to symbolise the wars to come: Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, said Cato, and Dido was just one of many to suffer from Roman power play. A mighty queen, nonetheless!

  2. 4 out of 5

    Ahmad Sharabiani

    Æneis = Aeneid, Virgil The Aeneid is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed. عنوان: انه اید؛ اث Æneis = Aeneid, Virgil The Aeneid is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed. عنوان: انه اید؛ اثر: ویرژیل؛ برگردان: میرجلال الدین کزازی؛ مشخصات نشر: تهران، نشر مرکز، 1381، در 479 ص، شابکها: 9643057151؛ 9643051099؛ 9789643057152؛ چاپ دوم 1375، چاپ سوم 1383، چاپ ششم 1387؛ واژه نامه دارد، نمایه دارد؛ موضوع: شعر حماسی لاتینی ترجمه شده به فارسی؛ منظومه‌ ای حماسی، که «ویرژیل» شاعر روم باستان آن را در پایان سده ی نخست پیش از میلاد و به زبان لاتین سروده، «ویرژیل» راهنمای سفر دانته در دوزخ و برزخ کمدی الهی نیز هست. سرودهای شبانی، و سرودهای روستایی را نیز ایشان سروده است داستان «انه اید» همان پیآمدهای نبرد تروا، پس از تازش یونانیان است. ویرژیل در «انه اید»؛ داستان «انه» را میسراید؛ و آنچه را که او، پس از رهایی از مرگ در تروا، در سفرهای پرماجرایش، برای رسیدن به «لاتیوم»، سرزمینی که به او نوید داده شده، میآزماید، و از سر میگذراند. سرگذشت «انه» یا «انه اید» ویرژیل، در غرب، سومین داستان بزرگ پهلوانی ست، پس از «ایلیاد و اودیسه»ی هومر یونانی. انه اید در ادبیات کلاسیک رومی (رمی) همان جایگاهی را دارد، که ایلیاد و ادیسه در ادبیات کلاسیک یونان دارد، آن را میتوان دنباله ای بر ایلیاد هومر نیز شمرد، ویرژیل، انه اید را از آنجا آغاز میکند، که هومر، ایلیاد را با ویرانی و سوختن تروا به پایان میبرد. انه اید همان حماسه ی ملی رومی ها نیز هست. «انه» بزرگزاده ای تروایی ست، که تبار مادریش به خدایان میرسید، و پس از تباهی تروا، او سفری پرماجرا را بر پهنه ی دریاها آغاز میکند، به کارتاژ، و سپس به ایتالیا میرود، مردمان لاتین را به پیروزی میرساند، و فرمانروای مردمی میشود که شایستگی ترواییان را، با توانستنهای لاتینیان در هم آمیخته اند. رومیان «انه» را نیای رومولوس، بنیادگذار شهر رم میشناسند، و میشناختند. ویرژیل از آن داستان کهن، حماسه ای پرشور ساخت، که در روزگار امپراتوری، پشتوانه ای تاریخی و اسطوره ای برای رمیان شد. ا. شربیانی

  3. 5 out of 5

    Meredith Holley

    I’m a huge fan of propaganda, but I think I may not be a fan of fan fic. I was going into this with the hope that it would be fun, extreme, Latin propaganda, but The Aeneid is really more Trojan War fan fic, IMO. It’s the Phantom Menace to The Iliad’s Empire Strikes Back. It is seriously lame. I think Akira Kurosawa could have made a pretty decent movie of it because he likes to have people frenzy. There’s a lot of frenzying here. The dudes are all chest pound, blooooood, and the chicks are all I’m a huge fan of propaganda, but I think I may not be a fan of fan fic. I was going into this with the hope that it would be fun, extreme, Latin propaganda, but The Aeneid is really more Trojan War fan fic, IMO. It’s the Phantom Menace to The Iliad’s Empire Strikes Back. It is seriously lame. I think Akira Kurosawa could have made a pretty decent movie of it because he likes to have people frenzy. There’s a lot of frenzying here. The dudes are all chest pound, blooooood, and the chicks are all hair pull, frenzy, waaaaaail. And Aeneas is such a dweeb about the name-dropping. Like, “Oh, did I mention that Venus is my mom? Oh, did I tell you how freaking hot I am? Yeah, I was totally there when Odysseus scammed the Cyclops.” Give me a freaking break. Did you scam the Cyclops? No. Get over yourself. This is what happens when you start a series, and then someone else wants to capitalize on your story. It’s the fifth season of The West Wing or the seventh season of The Gilmore Girls or all the Jane Austen / Jane Eyre sequels and prequels. It just doesn’t work. Find your own story! I’m looking at you, Virgil. Not that I’m against people using storylines that someone else has used. That’s almost inevitable (and, of course, Shakespeare is a good argument for being okay with stealing). But, there is a line. I’m not positive where it is. This story crossed it. And then don’t even get me started about Dante. WHY?! Virgil’s got his guys running into Homer’s guys, and then Dante’s running into Virgil? It’s just so presumptuous. I guess, it’s like, go ahead and steal a really wonderful storyline if you have something to add to it. But don’t think that your SUPER LAME storyline is going to suddenly turn wonderful because you drop a character from a good story into it. And there are some seriously weird details to this story. For example, Venus is this guy’s mom, but she doesn’t raise him to know not to pull a George Costanza in running away from the Greeks? Dude. It just takes a second to wait for your wife, you loser. I mean, I’m no great fan of Venus to begin with, but that’s just weird. It seems like she would have taken a minute to say, "Don't trample people running away from your enemies." Maybe it never occurred to her he'd be so lame. And then the business with Dido was just annoying. She’s the queen of all the land, has been through hell, wherein her eeeevil brother killed her seemingly pretty awesome husband, and then when Aeneas says to Dido, “btw, it was great sleeping with you, but I have a lot of heads to chop off for no particular reason, so I should prolly get going,” she goes all Kathy Bates in Misery all of a sudden. Except lamer because she’s wailing and self-mutilating instead of taking it out on him. It’s just awkward to watch. Girl needs a sassy gay friend. And none of these people are as cool as they think they are. And the rest of the book is basically one long chest pound. I guess there’s the part where he goes to Hades, and lo, he knows folk there. I’m kind of bitter about the whole thing because Juno’s so funny and great in The Iliad and such a loser here. Again, Akira Kurosawa probably could have turned it into a pretty decent movie. I don’t really get the frenzying thing, but Kurosawa seemed to have liked it. And, if you like people to run around, chopping limbs off and then whining and blustering for a while, you might really click with this book. What I’m saying, though, is if you haven’t read The Iliad, that’s where it’s at. I recommend, for best results, reading it in a hammock.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Libby

    There are plenty of reviews here telling you why you should or shouldn't read book X. This review of Virgil's "Aeneid," the largely-completed first century BC nationalist epic poem that recounts the Trojan War and Aeneas's role in the eventual founding of Rome, will tell you instead why you should read a copy of "Aeneid" from a university library. Simply put: student annotations. Nearly every book in a university catalog has been checked out at one time or another by a student reading it as prim There are plenty of reviews here telling you why you should or shouldn't read book X. This review of Virgil's "Aeneid," the largely-completed first century BC nationalist epic poem that recounts the Trojan War and Aeneas's role in the eventual founding of Rome, will tell you instead why you should read a copy of "Aeneid" from a university library. Simply put: student annotations. Nearly every book in a university catalog has been checked out at one time or another by a student reading it as primary or supplemental material for class. Thus, many books have important passages underlined, major themes listed at the beginnings of chapters, and clarifications written in the margins. The copy of "Aeneid" that I read not only contained thematic annotations from one student, but also a number of unintentionally funny comments from another. This made reading the epic poem, the sort of which spends five pages describing Aeneas's shield, much more entertaining than it might have otherwise been. For example, beside a section in which the longevity and glory of the Roman Empire was prophesied, the befuddled student wrote, "But Rome fell- did Virgil know this?" Ah yes, Virgil the time-traveling super-poet who cleverly peppered his verse with chronologically ironic statements. The same annotator observed that Dido's downfall is that she's "too nice" (apparently, feuding goddesses had nothing to do with it) and produced a mind-boggling series of rhetorical queries that demonstrate the importance of using context when deciphering pronouns in poetry (hint: the closest noun isn't always the antecedent). Sadly, the annotator only made it about a third of the way through the poem before either realizing that he/she could glean the crucial bits from lecture/Wikipedia or dropping the class. As a result, I was forced to pencil in similar comments in order to make it through the rest of the poem. The moral of this story is that though you may get the occasional bonehead marking up your book, reading a book that others have commented on previously gives an undeniable sense of camraderie. As in any interaction with strangers, you may be happily surprised, disappointed, or surprised into laughter. I highly recommend the experience to all.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Foad

    انه ايد و مختارنامه! مختارنامه رو ديديد؟ ديديد چقدر جنگ هاش تصنعیه؟ پر از حركات خشك و نمايشى، انگار نه انگار كه اون جا جنگه و دو نفر دارن با خشم و وحشت به قصد كشت تيغ تيز روانه ى سينه و گلوى هم مى كنن. نه وحشتى، نه عرقى، نه به نفس نفس افتادنى، نه تيرى كه توى گوشت گير مى كنه و بيرون نمياد، نه لخته خون كف كرده ى جارى از گلويى... فكر مى كنم بخشى اين ها به خاطر اينه كه عوامل اثر نه خودشون در جنگى حضور داشتن تا واقعيتش رو ببينن (طبيعتاً) و نه تخيل قدرتمندى داشتن كه بتونن جنون آشوبناك يه جنگ رو پيش خودش انه ايد و مختارنامه! مختارنامه رو ديديد؟ ديديد چقدر جنگ هاش تصنعیه؟ پر از حركات خشك و نمايشى، انگار نه انگار كه اون جا جنگه و دو نفر دارن با خشم و وحشت به قصد كشت تيغ تيز روانه ى سينه و گلوى هم مى كنن. نه وحشتى، نه عرقى، نه به نفس نفس افتادنى، نه تيرى كه توى گوشت گير مى كنه و بيرون نمياد، نه لخته خون كف كرده ى جارى از گلويى... فكر مى كنم بخشى اين ها به خاطر اينه كه عوامل اثر نه خودشون در جنگى حضور داشتن تا واقعيتش رو ببينن (طبيعتاً) و نه تخيل قدرتمندى داشتن كه بتونن جنون آشوبناك يه جنگ رو پيش خودشون تصوير كنن. و ويرژيل قطعاً يكى از اين دو رو داشته: يا تجربه ى مستقيم جنگ، يا تخيل قدرتمندى كه جايگزين تمام عيارى براى تجربه شده. اين حرف خيلى بيشتر در مورد هومر صادقه، كه ويرژيل پيروش محسوب ميشه. انه ايد و ايلياد هومر شاعر يونانى حدود سه هزار سال قبل، ماجراى جنگ ده ساله ى يونان و تروى رو كه به نابودى تروى انجاميد، به شعر سرود. حدود هزار سال بعد، ويرژيل شاعر رومى دنباله اى براى ايلياد سرود و تعريف كرد كه چطور مهاجران جنگ زده ى تروى، در جستجوى خونه اى جديد، تمدن روم رو در ايتاليا بنياد گذاشتن. حماسه ى هومر اون قدرها عناصر ملّى نداره، و هومر به يك اندازه از تروجان ها و يونانى ها جانبدارى مى كنه، همون طور كه خدايان بعضى طرفدار اين گروهن و بعضى طرفدار اون گروه. اما حماسه ى ويرژيل شايد به تبع شكل حكومت روم، رنگى شديداً ملّى گرايانه پيدا كرده، جداى از موضوع (ماجراى بنيانگذاران روم) در توصيف ها و شخصيت پردازى ها و ماجراها و پيشگويى ها و رفتار خدايان، جانبدارى مطلقى به نفع تروجان ها (بنيانگذاران روم) ديده ميشه و به ندرت خصوصيت مثبتى از دشمناشون نشون داده ميشه. اين خصوصيت، و نداشتن خط داستانى پيوسته و جذاب، باعث ميشه كه حماسه ى رومى انه ايد چند مرتبه پايين تر از همتاى يونانى ش قرار بگيره، هر چند هنوز در اوج مى درخشه. خلاصه کتاب برای یادآوری شخصی (view spoiler)[كتاب اول پس از جنگ "ايليون" و سوختن شهر "تروى"، اهالى آن به هر سوى مهاجرت كردند. از جمله "انئاس" و يارانش به سوى ايتاليا بادبان كشيدند. اما ايزدبانو "يونو" كه به سبب حسادت ديرين به زيبايى "ونوس" ايزدبانوى زيبايى، دشمن تروجان ها بود، كشتى ايشان را دستخوش طوفان گرداند تا غرقشان کند. ونوس كه مادر انئاس نيز هست، به کمک پسرش شتافت و كشتى او را به ساحل كارتاژ انداخت. انئاس و يارانش به نزد "دیدون" شهبانوی كارتاژ رفتند و از او براى رفتن به ايتاليا يارى طلبيدند. ونوس از بيم آن كه يونو باز دخالت كند و جان انئاس و یارانش را به خطر اندازد، پسر ديگر خود "كوپيدو"، ايزد عشق را روانئاس مى كند تا در هيئت كودكى حامل هدايا، در مجلس بزم بر زانوى شهبانوى كارتاژ نشسته، عشق انئاس را در سينه او بدمد. شهبانو ديدون كه اينك عاشق انئاس شده، از او درخواست مى كند كه داستان جنگ تروى را بازگو كند. كتاب دوم انئاس، داستان واپسين روز جنگ تروى را باز مى گويد: يونانيان اسبى چوبى را با دلاورترين مردان خود پر مى كنند و بر در تروی گذاشته، ساحل را ترك مى كنند. جاسوسى يونانى در لباس يك فرارى، به تروجان ها مى گويد كه اين اسب پيشكش يونانيان به ايزدبانويى است كه به معبدش توهين كرده اند، و خود به سرعت به يونان بازگشته اند تا تنديس خدايان خود را همراه آورند تا مگر به شفاعت آن ها از خشم ايزدبانو در امان بمانند. و اگر تروجان ها آن اسب پيشكشى را وارد شهر خود كنند، ايزدبانو بر يونانيان خشم خواهد گرفت. تروجان ها اسب را وارد شهر مى كنند، و نيمه شب مردان يونانى از آن به در ريخته، تروى را به آتش مى كشند. انئاس با دليرى مى جنگد و در ميانه نبرد چشمش به "هلن" زيباروى كه مسبب تمام اين فجايع است مى افتد و قصد كشتنش را مى كند، اما مادرش ونوس او را باز مى دارد و به حفظ خانواده و گريز از شهر مى خواند. انئاس با خانواده اش و كسانى كه بعدتر به او مى پيوندند از تروى ويران مى گريزد. كتاب سوم انئاس و يارانش در جستجوى سرزمينى كه شهر تازه خود را بر آن بنا كنند، ابتدا به "تراس" مى روند، اما وقتى انئاس مى خواهد گياهى خون چكان را بكند، آوازى از بن آن بر مى آيد و خود را روح يكى از ياران انئاس معرفى مى كند كه به دست تراسيان كشته شده است و اين گياه از جسد او رسته. انئاس از ترس خيانت تراسيان از تراس می گریزد و خدايان او را به ايتاليا رهنمون مى شوند. در راه ايتاليا در جزيره هاى مختلف سرگردان مى شود، گاه با "هارپى"ها كركسانى با چهره ى دختران، رو به رو مى شود، گاه با "كوكلوپس"ها غول هاى يك چشم و گاه از "خاروپيدس" هيولاى دريا مى گريزد: سرگذشت هايى كه پيش از اين "اوليس" از سر گذرانده. داستان انئاس با رسيدن به كارتاژ پايان مى يابد. كتاب چهارم انئاس و ديدون شاهبانوى كارتاژ سرمست از دلدادگى با يكديگر عشق مى ورزند. انئاس از ادامه ى سفر منصرف مى شود و اين خبر به ژوپيتر مى رسد. ژوپيتر انئاس را باز به سوى ايتاليا و پادشاهى موعود مى خواند. انئاس بى درنگ كارتاژ را ترك مى كند و ديدون شاهبانوى كارتاژ خود را مى كشد. اين چنين دشمنى ديرينه روم و كارتاژ آغاز مى شود. كتاب پنجم انئاس و يارانش به "سيسيل" مى رسند و براى بزرگداشت خدايان، مسابقاتى برگزار مى كنند. در همين حين زنان تروجان خسته از سفر بى پايان، به قصد اين كه در سيسيل بمانند و باز سرگردان درياها نشوند، كشتى ها را به آتش مى كشند. ژوپيتر بارانى مى فرستد و بعضى از كشتى ها را نجات مى دهد. از آن جا كه تعداد كشتى ها كاسته شده است، انئاس ناگزير پيران و ناتوانان را در سيسيل باقى مى گذارد و با زبده ترين مردان و زنانش راهى ايتاليا مى شود. کتاب ششم انئاس به راهنمایی "سیبیل"، راهبه غیبگو، به جهان زیرین سفر می کند تا روح پدرش را ببیند. پس از گذر از رودخانه ورودی جهان زیرین، از میان ارواح سرگردان (کسانی که خودکشی کرده اند یا بدون گور مانده اند) می گذرد و روح دیدون شهبانوی کارتاژ را می بیند. سپس از برابر دروازه دوزخ می گذرد و راهبه که راهنمای اوست، شمه ای از عذاب های دوزخیان را باز می گوید. سپس به بهشت می رسد و در آن جا با روح پدرش ملاقات می کند. پدرش روح فرزندانی که قرار است از نسل انئاس پدید آیند و روم را به بزرگی برسانند به او نشان داده و او را با مژده بزرگی، به ادامه سفرش به سوی ایتالیا ترغیب می کند. انئاس باز می گردد و بی درنگ به سوی ایتالیا بادبان می کشد. کتاب هفتم انئاس به ایتالیا می رسد و قصد آن دارد که با دختر "لاتینوس" پادشاه "لاتین" ها - از اقوام ساکن ایتالیا - ازدواج کند تا بر قدرتش در آن دیار افزوده شود. اما ایزدبانو یونو که از موفقیت انئاس و سازگاری سرنوشت با او خشمگین است، می کوشد که این موفقیت را هر چه بیشتر تیره سازد. پس با یاری ایزدبانو "آلکتوی" دوزخی، جنگ و خونریزی را در میان ایتالیایی ها و تروجان ها می پراکند. از جمله "ترونوس" پادشاه "روتولی" ها - از اقوام ساکن ایتالیا - که قرار بود با دختر لاتینوس ازدواج کند، خشمگین به جنگ انئاس می آید. کتاب هشتم انئاس برای مقابله با ایتالیاییان، با دشمن آن ها پادشاه "اواندر" هم پیمان می شود. اواندر برای او تاریخچه سرزمین ایتالیا را باز می گوید: از دورانی که "ساتورن" مردمان وحشی آن دیار را قانون بخشید و بر ایشان حکومت کرد، تا دورانی که "هرکول" دیو هولناک ساکن در آن دیار را کشت. پس از اواندر، دشمنان دیگر ایتالیا نیز با انئاس متحد می شوند. ونوس از شوی خود، "ولکان" ایزد آتش و صنعت، می خواهد که برای فرزندش انئاس، اسلحه و زره بسازد و ولکان می پذیرد و بر آن ها تمام تاریخ آینده روم را حکاکی می کند و انئاس سرنوشت نسل های آینده را بر دوش می اندازد. كتاب نهم ايتالياييان - لاتین ها و روتولی ها - از غيبت انئاس استفاده كرده شهر او را محاصره مى كنند. جنگی سخت در می گیرد. كتاب دهم انئاس با هم پیمانانش باز می گردد. سپاهیان ایتالیایی از دوسو محاصره می شوند و نبرد به سود تروجان ها می گردد. ایزدبانو یونو از ژوپیتر می خواهد که لااقل ترونوس پادشاه روتولی ها که از تیره خدایان است جان به در برد. پس ابری را به شکل انئاس می سازد و ترونوس به خیال این که انئاس را دنبال می کند، ابر را تعیب کرده، به کشتی ای وارد می شود. کشتی حرکت کرده از صحنه جنگ دور می شود. كتاب یازدهم تروجان ها به شهر لاتین ها حمله برده، محاصره کنندگان خود را محاصره می کنند. جنگ در می گیرد و عاقبت بنا بر آن می شود که انئاس و ترونوس نبرد تن به تن کنند و نتیجه جنگ را تعیین نمایند. كتاب دوازدهم نبرد تن به تن در می گیرد، و انئاس ترونوس را به قتل می رساند. (hide spoiler)]

  6. 4 out of 5

    Fernando

    "La fortuna favorece a los valientes." La Eneida, este poema épico inmortal surgido de la genialidad de Publio Virgilio Marón, es considerado uno de las obras clásicas fundacionales de la literatura universal que lo relaciona directamente con los aedos griegos, especialmente Homero, pero que en como continuación histórica con la guerra de Troya tiene también conexiones con algunas de las tragedias de Esquilo y Sófocles. Virgilio, este poeta incomparable, comparte dos detalles muy interesantes con "La fortuna favorece a los valientes." La Eneida, este poema épico inmortal surgido de la genialidad de Publio Virgilio Marón, es considerado uno de las obras clásicas fundacionales de la literatura universal que lo relaciona directamente con los aedos griegos, especialmente Homero, pero que en como continuación histórica con la guerra de Troya tiene también conexiones con algunas de las tragedias de Esquilo y Sófocles. Virgilio, este poeta incomparable, comparte dos detalles muy interesantes con el genio checo Franz Kafka. Esta, su obra cumbre está inacabada luego de once años de gestación a los que dedicara los últimos años de su vida, incluso ya muy enfermo, de la misma manera que Kafka, no termina sus novelas "El castillo" o "El proceso", Virgilio deja trunco el final de la Eneida que le arrebata la muerte cuando lo sorprende a los 51 años. Por el otro lado, también comparte con Kafka una decisión que fue desoída: Kafka, ya gravemente enfermo de tuberculosis le pide a Max Brod, su amigo y albacea que queme toda su obra, orden que Brod desobedece para legarnos todo lo que hoy leemos de este autor. Lo mismo hace Vario, amigo y también albacea de Virgilio quien ya en su lecho de muerte le pide que queme todo lo escrito sobre la Eneida, poema que el poeta acostumbraba a recitarle al emperador Augusto. Cuando uno lee la Eneida sabe de antemano que si quiere realmente tener una idea global de lo que allí sucede, deberá, en lo posible leer previamente la Teogonía de Hesíodo que explica como se gestaron los distintos dioses del Olimpo y como éstos, luego de relacionarse con los mortales fueron engendrando a los distintos héroes de los poemas. De esta forma, llegamos a saber que Eneas es fruto de la unión de la diosa Venus (o Afrodita para los griegos) con su padre Anquises como de la misma manera Aquiles nace de la unión de la diosa Tetis con el mortal Peleo, mientras que con Ulises esto no sucede aunque es importante aclarar la intima relación que el héroe de la Odisea tiene con Palas Atenea. Siempre los dioses interceden ante un destino posiblemente desafortunado para cambiar las cosas y esto también sucederá en la Eneida, ya que constantemente Eneas es protegido por Venus en distintos momentos, desde la huida de Troya hasta el arribo a las costas de Hesperia, como se denominaba antiguamente a Italia hasta cuando comienzan los combates contra los latinos bajo la orden del caudillo Turno, quien a su vez tendrá el apoyo de otra diosa, Juno, quien generará en él y en sus súbditos la constante violencia y ánimos para ir a la guerra, como lo hace también el dios Ares (Marte) con Héctor en la Ilíada. Es que Juno, celosa de los troyanos hará lo imposible para impedir que Eneas funde una nueva Troya en Italia, además por haber sido desairada por el mortal Paris eligiendo a Venus y por el desaire amoroso que le propina Ganímedes con un príncipe troyano. Pero Venus no es la única diosa que formará parte de todo este juego de traiciones, discordias y peleas. Otros dioses como Júpiter (Zeus) o Vulcano quien, de la misma manera que hizo con Ulises forjará la armadura y escudo de Eneas para la batalla con Turno tendrán incidencia directa. Así, todo estará servido para la guerra. Pero primero debemos aclarar que la Eneida consta de dos partes bien marcadas. En primer lugar, luego de la destrucción de Illión, como se conocía también a Troya, Eneas escapa con su padre Anquises a cuestas y su hijo Ascanio de la mano, perdiendo en ella a su esposa mortal, Creúsa. A partir de allí, arribará a Cartago donde tendrá un tormentoso affaire con la reina, Dido. Estos hechos tienen un trasfondo que le acarrearán más desgracias al héroe teucro. Es que el escape de Eneas hacia Italia tiene el mismo tenor que el de Ulises volviendo a Ítaca en la Odisea. Recordemos que son varios los poemas y tragedias en donde se narran regresos odiseicos luego de la caída de Troya. Lo mismo sucede con el regreso de Agamenón en la tragedia de Esquilo y en la Orestíada, narrado por el mismo aedo. Luego de vivir las peores vicisitudes, de la persecución de Juno, la muerte de muchos de sus guerreros, de estar sometidos a tempestades que destruyen sus naves llega a Italia y es aquí donde comienza la segunda parte, que tiene en el relato, una similitud muy cercana a la Ilíada, cuando los latinos entran en guerra con los teucros. Los cuatro libros finales de los doce que contiene la Eneida relatan estos hechos bélicos. Es clave haber leído la Ilíada, ya que la descripción de las batallas serán prácticamente iguales a los del poema de Homero. Por momentos, las manera en que lo describe Virgilio es tan cruento que parece que uno como lector está viendo esa violencia con la que latinos y teucros se masacran en el campo de batalla. La sangre salpica por doquier a todos los que son muertos por su enemigo, las lanzas acribillan cuanto pecho se encuentran y se parten cabezas hasta el cuello o se degüellan hombres sin la menor compasión. Parece que Nikólai Gógol se inspiró en la Ilíada y la Eneida para contarnos de manera tan explicita y tan parecida lo que sucede en el enfrentamiento entre los cosacos ucranianos y los polacos en su novela Tarás Bulba, lo que demuestra la inspiración que poetas como Homero o Virgilio generaban en los grandes escritores de la era moderna. Otro aspecto muy importante a tener en cuenta es que el eje y el centro de la Eneida reside en el libro VI, cuando Eneas desciende a los Infiernos para encontrarse con Anquises, su padre fallecido. De la misma manera que cuando Ulises baja al Hades, Eneas debe atravesar los distintos lugares del Infierno como lo hace el inmenso Dante Alighieri quien durante gran parte de la Divina Comedia elige para esa travesía precisamente a... Virgilio. Nadie más indicado que el poeta latino para acompañarlo en ese oscuro camino. A diferencia de lo narrado en La Divina Commedia, Virgilio nos explica cómo es el Infierno de una forma más reducida y como si todos los lugares estuvieran muy juntos unos de otro. Eneas es acompañado por la profetiza Sibila, quien le muestra y explica qué es cada cosa en el Averno y que sucede con las almas que están allí. Lo que Dante describirá con todo lujo de detalles es mostrado a Eneas rápidamente, tal es el caso de Caronte, el barquero que traslada las almas por el río Aqueronte, la laguna Estigia y el lago del Leteo, en donde Eneas también debe entrar para olvidar parte de lo vivido. Ya en los libros XI y XII se desarrolla la batalla final y da la sensación de que Virgilio traza una comparación con la Ilíada para describir el enfrentamiento más importante de todos entre Eneas y Turno, como lo hiciera Homero con Aquiles y Héctor. Es claro el sentimiento de homenaje a Homero como también la inspiración que el poeta griego le infundó para continuar la historia en su propio poema. Comparando la Ilíada como la Odisea, tanto Eneas como Aquiles enfrentan a su adversario con el objeto de vengar la muerte de Patroclo en el caso de Aquiles contra Héctor como la muerte de Palante a manos de Turno en lo que respecta a Eneas. Lamentablemente y al quedar inconclusa la Eneida, nunca sabremos que sucede después de este enfrentamiento del que no voy a revelar el ganador para resguardar a aquel lector que quiera embarcarse en la aventura del bravo y valiente guerrero Eneas, cuyas hazañas han quedado inmortalizadas en el oro de las letras universales gracias a Virgilio, uno de los padres de la literatura. Quisieron los hados que así fuera...

  7. 5 out of 5

    James

    Book Review 3 out of 5 stars to The Aeneid, a classic work written in 17 BC by Virgil. In The Aeneid, Virgil creates two vastly different archetypal heroes named Turnus and Aeneas. Aeneas is a Trojan prince who has hopes of finding a new Troy in the land of Latium, but he runs into an angered Turnus, a Rutulian prince that does not welcome Aeneas. Both men are equally strong, equally determined, and have equal and rightful claim to the land. However, Virgil creates this distinct difference a Book Review 3 out of 5 stars to The Aeneid, a classic work written in 17 BC by Virgil. In The Aeneid, Virgil creates two vastly different archetypal heroes named Turnus and Aeneas. Aeneas is a Trojan prince who has hopes of finding a new Troy in the land of Latium, but he runs into an angered Turnus, a Rutulian prince that does not welcome Aeneas. Both men are equally strong, equally determined, and have equal and rightful claim to the land. However, Virgil creates this distinct difference and hatred between the men that leads to the profound greatness of Rome. Turnus is a Rutulian prince who is planning on marrying Lavinia, the princess of Latium. He is courageous when he defends his people in the war against the Trojans (Book IX and X), brilliant in his plans to attack the Trojan camp (p.207), yet motivated to win for purely personal goals. Turnus sacrifices public welfare and the good of the state just to defeat Aeneas and win the battle and Lavinia. Aeneas is also a prince who is planning on marrying Lavinia. He is caring when he looks back for his late wife Creusa (p.57), respectful and loving when his father dies (p.80), and driven when he continues his journey to find a new Troy (p.103). However, unlike Turnus, Aeneas is truly unselfish in his reasons for wanting Latium. Aeneas wants to settle the land for his people and their families, to find a new Troy. Aeneas does not want the land to be selfish. Both Turnus and Aeneas have determination behind them, physical and mental strength behind them, yet most of all the gods behind them. With the help of Juno, Turnus fights till the end avoiding several near deaths such as Pallas’ arrow and his jump into the Tiber River fully armored. Similar to Turnus, Aeneas’ mother helps Aeneas by giving him protection with the creation of the shield (p.198), and when she heals Aeneas’ wound with the special potion (p. 302). Turnus and Aeneas up until this point have no differences. They are identical in their strengths, weaknesses, and support. However, the one major difference between them is that Aeneas has destiny behind him. He is fated to take care of his Trojan people, find a new Troy, marry Lavinia, and bear descendants to establish the great city of Rome. Aeneas has no choice but to win the war and Lavinia’s hand in marriage. Turnus must lose and somehow suffer; He cannot escape his fate. Virgil makes use of the difference between the two heroes using antagonism, hatred and most of all the superiority of Aeneas to show the greatness of Rome. At the time The Aeneid was written Augustus Caesar was in power and the Pax Romana was beginning. Rome was in a state of absolute reign and greatness. Virgil makes use of the character Aeneas to show the greatness of his friend Octavian or Augustus Caesar. He uses the difference between the two heroes to show that by destiny via Aeneas (an ancestor of Octavian Caesar) Rome will lead the world in philosophy, art, and intelligence, etc. Turnus is good, but Aeneas is better and so is the new emperor Caesar. With Octavian Caesar in control, Rome will become even greater than it is. Virgil accomplishes his goal of glorifying Rome and its leader Augustus Caesar. Virgil creates a strong similarity between Turnus and Aeneas, however the major characteristic of these two heroes is that Aeneas is destined to win and Turnus to lose. This difference greatly surpasses the likeness between the two men and leads to the exaltation and glorification of Rome. If Augustus Caesar is anywhere similar to Aeneas, which he is as Virgil points out, he will lead Rome to the tops. And that is just what happens! About Me For those new to me or my reviews... here's the scoop: I read A LOT. I write A LOT. And now I blog A LOT. First the book review goes on Goodreads, and then I send it on over to my WordPress blog at https://thisismytruthnow.com, where you'll also find TV & Film reviews, the revealing and introspective 365 Daily Challenge and lots of blogging about places I've visited all over the world. And you can find all my social media profiles to get the details on the who/what/when/where and my pictures. Leave a comment and let me know what you think. Vote in the poll and ratings. Thanks for stopping by.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Madeline

    "I sing of warfare and a man at war. From the sea-coast of Troy in early days He came to Italy by destiny, To our Lavinian western shore, A fugitive, this captain, buffeted Cruelly on land as on the sea By blows from powers of the air - behind them Baleful Juno in her sleepless rage. And cruel losses were his lot in war, Till he could found a city and bring home His gods to Latium, land of the Latin race, The Alban lords, and the high walls of Rome. Tell me the cause now, O Muse, how galled In her divine pri "I sing of warfare and a man at war. From the sea-coast of Troy in early days He came to Italy by destiny, To our Lavinian western shore, A fugitive, this captain, buffeted Cruelly on land as on the sea By blows from powers of the air - behind them Baleful Juno in her sleepless rage. And cruel losses were his lot in war, Till he could found a city and bring home His gods to Latium, land of the Latin race, The Alban lords, and the high walls of Rome. Tell me the cause now, O Muse, how galled In her divine pride, and how sore at heart From her old wound, the queen of gods compelled him- A man apart, devoted to his mission- To undergo so many perilous days And enter on so many trials." Years after finally reading The Illiad and The Odyssey (one of my high school classes went over the important bits of The Odyssey, but that was pretty much the beginning and end of my classical education), I got around to reading the Roman side of the story, at last. Is it blasphemy to say that I like Virgil's version more? Granted, Odysseus is probably a more compelling character, since he's at least morally complex in comparison to Aeneas's bland nobility and piety, but I kind of preferred reading the adventures of a guy who manages to be a hero without also having to be a self-centered, cheating dickbag. Even though I prefer the Greeks to the Romans overall, I'm Team Aeneas on this one, because man, Odysseus sucks. (I have this whole theory that everything that happens in the Odyssey is actually one huge lie concocted by Odysseus to explain why he didn't come home for ten years after the Trojan War) As in Homer's epics, some of the best parts of this book are the battle descriptions, which are exciting, detailed, and appropriately gory. There's also a lengthy description of the armor that the gods give one of the characters, and even though that sounds boring, it's actually beautiful. And I liked the supporting characters a lot more than I liked Homer's, especially Queen Dido and Camilla the warrior girl. Also Aeneas travels to the Underworld, which is always a fun time.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Elise (TheBookishActress)

    some funny reviews as to my opinions on this 1) this is filled with purple prose and instalove, complete with a hot sexy bad boy for the main character 2) hello my name is Aeneas Dark'ness Dementia Raven Way. I have long ebony black hair and some people say I look like Aphrodite (AN: if u don’t know who she is get da hell out of here!) I was sailing through the ever-mindful anger of the savage Juno. It was raining so there was no sun, which I was very happy about. A lot of gods stared at me. I put some funny reviews as to my opinions on this 1) this is filled with purple prose and instalove, complete with a hot sexy bad boy for the main character 2) hello my name is Aeneas Dark'ness Dementia Raven Way. I have long ebony black hair and some people say I look like Aphrodite (AN: if u don’t know who she is get da hell out of here!) I was sailing through the ever-mindful anger of the savage Juno. It was raining so there was no sun, which I was very happy about. A lot of gods stared at me. I put up my middle finger at them. 3) this doesn't really deserve one star but my latin class definitely does

  10. 5 out of 5

    Charlotte May

    Read as part of my A Levels. Thoroughly enjoyed the first half of The Aeneid (mainly because its the half influenced by The Odyssey and so more mythological and fantastical) less enthralled by the second half (more influenced by The Iliad - with war and politics.) Will go back for a reread at some point I imagine.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Trevor

    I’ve been meaning to read the Aeneid for years. The Armorial Bearings of the City of Melbourne have the motto: Vires Acquirit Eundo which is taken from book four of the Aeneid. It translates as, “It gathers strength as it goes”. Melbourne’s first judge gave the young town the motto – but I’ve often wondered if those he gave it to had any idea that the reference is to sexual rumours spreading about Dido and Aeneas. Rumour being the swiftest of the Gods. Anyway, there is a pop star who is called Di I’ve been meaning to read the Aeneid for years. The Armorial Bearings of the City of Melbourne have the motto: Vires Acquirit Eundo which is taken from book four of the Aeneid. It translates as, “It gathers strength as it goes”. Melbourne’s first judge gave the young town the motto – but I’ve often wondered if those he gave it to had any idea that the reference is to sexual rumours spreading about Dido and Aeneas. Rumour being the swiftest of the Gods. Anyway, there is a pop star who is called Dido too, which is an odd name to call a child, I’d have thought. Given Dido’s fate in this book – to commit suicide as Aeneas leaves her to fulfil his destiny and found Rome – it seems an even stranger name to call a child. I had no idea that Aeneas was from Troy. That Helen one has a lot to answer for – but then, what would the Iliad, Odyssey and Aeneid be without her? And while we are on troublesome women – what’s that Juno like? But then, if you are going to marry your brother, well… The religion in this book is utterly remarkable. I quite like it, as it does more or less accord with my experience of the world. One of the problems Christianity faces is the problem of evil – how can an all powerful, all loving God allow such terrible things to happen? But the ancients had no such worries – basically the Gods are all total nutcases and totally dysfunctional. They don’t just engage in incest, but every vice imaginable and they all basically hate each other. So they go out of their way to make life a misery for each other and, in the process, make life a complete misery for people. I mean, imagine that not only the destruction of Troy, but also of Carthage (two of the major cities of the ancient world) can be more or less explained as resulting from a guy called Paris judging a beauty contest. This is religion for the third millennium. This is religion for a generation raised on Big Brother and American Idol. And when Virgil wants to be violent, we are talking squelchingly so. You know the sort of thing – thrice the two edged sword hacked into his flesh until huge welts… Yes, boy’s own adventure stuff, possibly even with capital letters. Lots of blood, quite a bit of mashed brains and the words ‘up to the hilt’ used at least twice that I can remember without checking. All the same there are moments of aching humanity and a perceptiveness that catches the breath. The scene in hell with Dido is very moving, the stuff with the king of Arcadia and Pallas is heart wrenching. A constant theme throughout is how your greatest victory can become your greatest defeat – as Turnus proves at the end. I really loved this, I loved the extended metaphors (some that went to the very edge of being over extended – like a rubber band that suddenly snaps and slaps the extender on the hand when all he wanted to do was shoot the band at a friend across the room, or knock down some paper targets now forever just out of reach). There is one – which I’ve forgotten what it was seeking to illuminate now – where a lion is being baited and has a spear stuck into it and the spear is broken off flush with its wound. I think all this was basically to say how loudly some guy was roaring – you know, as loud as a lion, wasn’t quite enough. But the metaphors really are quite something. You’d never get away with building metaphors like that today. I don’t know if it is as good as the Odyssey, but like the Odyssey it starts as a Classical Road movie and ends up one of those Epic Theatre battles that used to be on telly after the wrestling on Sunday mornings when I was growing up. You have to say one thing for these Mediterranean types , they sure know how to put on a good fight. The thing that is hardest to understand is that the Romans gave up all this to become Christians – hard to imagine.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Edward

    Introduction Map --The Aeneid Translator's Postscript Genealogy: The Royal Houses of Greece and Troy Suggestions for Further Reading Variants from the Oxford Classical Text Notes on the Translation Pronouncing Glossary

  13. 4 out of 5

    Robert

    Oh, Aeneid, it isn't you... it's me! I tried to like you, Aeneid, I really did. And we had some good times, didn't we? But I have to admit that I think I was still a bit hung up on Iliad, and I was trying to make you something you aren't. That isn't fair to you, and it isn't fair to me. You've got such nice language in you. Such poetry! I'm sure that someone will come along soon who can appreciate you for what you are. You deserve it. Really. You're a wonderful story; you're just not for me. I fina Oh, Aeneid, it isn't you... it's me! I tried to like you, Aeneid, I really did. And we had some good times, didn't we? But I have to admit that I think I was still a bit hung up on Iliad, and I was trying to make you something you aren't. That isn't fair to you, and it isn't fair to me. You've got such nice language in you. Such poetry! I'm sure that someone will come along soon who can appreciate you for what you are. You deserve it. Really. You're a wonderful story; you're just not for me. I finally had to accept it when you kept going on and on about those STUPID BOAT RACES. Oh! I'm sorry! I'm sorry! No, really, that wasn't fair of me. No, no, you should absolutely enjoy your boat races. No, they're great, and I'm sure that they're interesting to a lot of people, and they're part of what makes you you -- which is great -- but I just can't get interested. My mind kept wandering. Oh, of course I realize you've got other interests. I realize that you were just finishing up with the boat races when I said this, but it isn't just that. I'd been thinking about this for awhile. And I think I should spend my time with a book that I enjoy more. And you'll find a reader who's interested in you. I really wish you all the best, and I'm sorry I had to stop reading you so early.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Alex

    The Romans took over from the Greeks as the dominant Mediterranean power after Alexander of Macedon died in 323 BCE, and then turned into an empire when Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BCE, which is a nice way to say that he staged a military coup and installed himself as dictator. It ran along merrily for 800 years until around 500 AD, when it was finally overrun by a series of people with awesome names like Visigoths and Attila the Hun. Rome was actually founded even earlier than that, though The Romans took over from the Greeks as the dominant Mediterranean power after Alexander of Macedon died in 323 BCE, and then turned into an empire when Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BCE, which is a nice way to say that he staged a military coup and installed himself as dictator. It ran along merrily for 800 years until around 500 AD, when it was finally overrun by a series of people with awesome names like Visigoths and Attila the Hun. Rome was actually founded even earlier than that, though, in the 700s BCE, by Aeneas, who was a Trojan - from the Trojan War, so we’re working (as usual) off Homer. Like Odysseus, Aeneas had a long and incompetent journey from Troy. I made this myself! Click for bigger He wasn’t going home, though, he was trying to find a prophesied new one. Because Odysseus showed up in a horse and burned his old one. (That famous Trojan Horse story is mostly told in the Aeneid, only briefly referred to in the Odyssey.) That founding story, which is made up, is what's told in the greatest Roman epic, Virgil's Aeneid, written around 20 BCE. It’s pretty good. The story of the Carthaginian queen Dido is a high point: she falls in love with him; they sleep together and then he’s like never mind, I gotta go found Rome, prompting her to commit suicide by stabbing while burning, and beginning a feud with Carthage that will come to fruition when Hannibal barely fails to defeat Rome around 200 BCE, and then Rome completely destroys Carthage and you can’t even find ruins anymore, really, which is a bummer. Dido killing herself - by Cayot, 1711, this is in the Louvre TS Eliot calls The Aeneid "our classic, the classic of all Europe." It's a minor work for our generation - we're way more familiar with Homer - but it's been consistently read since it was written, unlike Homer (who lost favor for a while in the Middle Ages). It's an imperialist work, basically, written to canonize Rome as a great civilization and specifically exploring what it means to be a superpower. Virgil wasn't comfortable with it himself; he never finished it, and (according to the myth) asked that it be burned after his death, which lesson Kafka might have paid attention to: if you want something burned right, you'd best do it yourself. Translations I read the Fagles translation, which was as usual excellent. In case you don't know, Fagles is the Pevear & Volokhonsky of antiquity: he's done well-regarded translations of just about every work written BCE, which means you can just go with him if you don't have any better ideas but you should maybe watch out that you don't end up absorbing the entire canon through him, which would be weird. Mandelbaum also has a translation; I haven't read it but his work is dependable. Your other options are the conservative Fitzgerald or the very liberal Lombardo. Here's an excellent but very lengthy piece that (starting about halfway down) talks at length about different translations and comes out for Fagles.

  15. 4 out of 5

    Jillian

    Once upon a 2050ish years ago, there was a Roman chap named Vergil who wrote poetry. And holy crappuccino, could he write poetry. Anyway, his chum Caesar Augustus says to him, "Verg, old pal, old bean! Write me some jolly old propaganda linking us Romans, inferiority complex-afflicted as we are, to the Greeks so we can get on with conquering the world and quit feeling so much like a master race of insecure teenagers, there's an absolutely spiffing chap. Oh, and feel free to completely copycat Ho Once upon a 2050ish years ago, there was a Roman chap named Vergil who wrote poetry. And holy crappuccino, could he write poetry. Anyway, his chum Caesar Augustus says to him, "Verg, old pal, old bean! Write me some jolly old propaganda linking us Romans, inferiority complex-afflicted as we are, to the Greeks so we can get on with conquering the world and quit feeling so much like a master race of insecure teenagers, there's an absolutely spiffing chap. Oh, and feel free to completely copycat Homer as much as you like." So good old Virg does, of course, because he was cool like that. Eventually, he has 10,000 or so lines of beautiful (in all seriousness here, Vergil was a gifted poet, to the point of nearly making me enjoy some of this book and giving it a 2 star rating feels almost unforgivably shallow and harsh of me. No hard feelings, poor Vergil, my poor sweet Vergil), moderately hard to follow and unbelievably tedious dactylic hexameter filled with mind-bogglingly idiotic characters and Homer ripoffs. Unfortunately, because of poor old Verg's untimely demise (probably a fishsauce gone wrong, or a toothache maybe... a toothache caused by a fishsauce gone wrong isn't completely implausible and oh boy, what a way to go), it never gets properly finished. But before he pops off down the easy road to Avernus, he requests that the Aeneid, that shining highlight of his career, be destroyed. Augustus, however, either wasn't in a terribly compliant mood that day, or he was just really hurting from the lack of quality Homer fanfiction available at the time (this was in the dark days before fanfiction dot net and AO3, so the only real place for this kind of stuff was graffiti on a forum wall and there's only so much you can do with that). Whatever it was, he apparently didn't feel like honouring poor old Verg's dying wish. I'm not going to say I wish he had just up and tossed it into Mt. Vesuvius or something else roughly that dramatic. That would be a horrid thing to say. Especially since this book contains such excellent quotes as “If I cannot move heaven, I will raise hell” and “...[the Cyclops] munched, the warm joints quivering 'twixt his teeth.” Not to mention that this lovely piece of Homer fanfic & Roman propaganda is practically a pillar of Western literature and the glorious civilization of Academia, and the dons of Oxbridge will be howling for my blood. (Picture it—a few dozen old guys in big black robes chasing me off the intellectual lawns of the internet and calling for my death... what a mental image! It shall sustain me till 2022.) But to be perfectly honest (and I'm not just saying this because I think it would be really cool and validating if I provoked the overlords of Academia to send a hitman after me), I wish he had tossed it into Mt. Vesuvius.

  16. 4 out of 5

    João Fernandes

    "Flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo!" If I cannot sway the heavens, I will wake the powers of hell" (Before I actually start reviewing The Aeneid, I'd like to thank Mr. Bernard Knox not only for his very helpful introductions in the Penguin Deluxe Editions of the three big classic epics, but for sharing his heartfelt story as an U.S. Army captain and his encounter with the Sortes Virgilianae of The Aeneid in the last weeks of World War II in Italy.) Imperator Caesar Divi Filius The Aenei "Flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo!" If I cannot sway the heavens, I will wake the powers of hell" (Before I actually start reviewing The Aeneid, I'd like to thank Mr. Bernard Knox not only for his very helpful introductions in the Penguin Deluxe Editions of the three big classic epics, but for sharing his heartfelt story as an U.S. Army captain and his encounter with the Sortes Virgilianae of The Aeneid in the last weeks of World War II in Italy.) Imperator Caesar Divi Filius The Aeneid, written by the Italian poet Virgil in the 1st century BC, is the first, and perhaps the only, truly successful fan fiction ever written. It follows the story of Aeneas, a Dardanian prince, offspring of Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite/Venus, and his wanderings to find Italy and plant the seeds that would one day spring into the greatest empire of the ancient world. He carries his father and son out of the burning wreckage of Troy, and tries to find a new home for the homeless surviving sons of Troy. This book has one of the most interesting and luckiest stories a book can have. In one thing Virgil was brilliant at, and that was at feeling the temperature of the crowd. The Roman Republic has fallen, Gaius Julius Caesar has seen to that. His adopted son, Octavian, has just secured what many think will be a dynasty that will rule the world. What better time to sing of the legitimacy of Roman supremacy? On them I set no limits, space or time I have granted them power, empire without end. - Jupiter on Aeneas' sons. Most rulers, in particular in earlier History, have had to deal with the awful task of legitimacy. Kings and emperors rule not because of force (well, it is definitely because of force, but that's not what we want the people to think), but because it is their divine right. When one power falls and another rises, was it due to the will of the gods or to the greed of man against the gods' champion? (For more on this question, read Richard II). As such, a new rule, a new dynasty, will always have to justify if and how their rule is divine will and not an abomination against the gods. What better time for Augustus, the head of the Gens Julia, to recall his adopted father's claim on divinity? He has added "Divi Filius" to his name, "son of a god", because Julius Caesar had already been deified, and both men claim descent from Aeneas, and therefore from Venus. Virgil not only sings of Aeneas and Venus in order to greaten their descendant, Augustus, he sings directly of Augustus as if the entirety of the Trojan escapades had been simply to put him on Earth. I can see the young emperor puffing up at every mention of how the gods want the Trojan/Italian hybrid race to rule the world, and that Vulcan himself carved the Battle of Actium into Aeneas' shield, the son of a goddess carrying his descendant's most glorious victory. Truly wonderful propaganda. Here is Caesar and all the line of Iulus soon to venture under the sky's great arch. Here is the man, he's here! Time and again you've heard his coming promised - Caesar Augustus! Son of a god, he will bring back the Age of Gold (...) expand his empire past the Garamants and the Indians to a land beyond the stars, beyond the wheel of the year, the course of the sun itself (...)" - Anchises' ghost to Aeneas, as they see Caesar Augustus in the Underworld Homer's Successor, Paris' Successor I get it, Virgil, I really do. The Iliad's epic battles are adrenaline injections to the reader, and Odysseus' misadventures in the The Odyssey have that Classical tragedy "everything going down hill" charisma to them. Trying to do both at the same time is daring, and you did a wonderful job, except you tried to do so much it feels too little. The battles between the Italians and the Trojan exiles sound *vaguely* like the Trojan War, only in a smaller, slightly less exciting scale. Aeneas' attempts to focus on his destiny and destination, his shaking off the lusts and perils thrown at him along the way... it felt like an Odysseus searching for a Penelope he never knew, a destiny that he carries because he has to, not one driven by his own free will and determination. Dido is Aeneas' Circe and Calypso, diluted down to a mortal spurned woman. She is by far the character I felt the most for: she is a widow, robbed of her love and her homeland, trying to rebuild her life in Carthage, and then some guy shows up yelling "look at me, I saw Polyphemus, my mother is a goddess, I am a Trojan hero, did I mention my mother is Venus, the goddess of beauty - by the way, I don't take after my father!" Dido has her memory of her former husband wiped out by Venus (I don't really the profit for her party, but okay) and is compelled to end up with Aeneas in some cave shagging, which to some constitutes marriage, but not to the State of Carthage. Dido's tragic end is entirely Venus and Aeneas' fault, who took to a grieving widow knowing that his destiny was elsewhere, and then is surprised to find her in Hades after her attention-seeking suicide - a curse and a prophecy of the coming of Hannibal, Rome's scourge. "And you, my Tyrians, harry with hatred all his line, his race to come (...) No love between our peoples, ever, no pacts of peace! Come rising up from my bones, you avenger still unknown" Of Gods and Men: Part III If you read my reviews of The Iliad and The Odyssey, you may have seen me obsessively analysing the God/Man relationships in Homer's epics, because it is the facet of his work I find the most fascinating. Virgil's gods are a bit too complacent. Homer's Hera and Virgil's Juno are the best kept persona, her intensity and obsession are all still there, but the rest of the gods just can't be bothered. Venus is always saving her son, as she does against Diomedes in The Iliad, but only halfway through the book does she remember "oh maybe I should have helped your Trojans during the fall of Troy instead of making you run away like a coward". Jupiter doesn't do a single relevant thing in the entire book except saying "no more meddling", which is thoroughly disobeyed by both parties. Vulcan's role is to do the exact same thing he did in The Iliad as Hephaestus - to forge a shield for the protagonist. It felt like the conflict of the gods among themselves, to be expected in basically any decision they ever make, polytheistic gods being unilateral by definition, was lacking. Artemis/Diana, supporter of Troy during the war, simply switches sides to the warrior princess Camilla; Ares/Mars just can't be bothered; Athena is either asleep or too busy trying to bring Odysseus a GPS on some goddamn world's end. The entire conflict of the forces of nature we see in The Iliad seems diluted in the wars in Italy... The King and the Usurper I feel like I've been focusing on the negatives of The Aeneid, and I want to make clear that I loved this book. Those four stars up there are actually a 4.5, which is not only a 5 because I, in my own aspirations for this epic, I found some of them lacking. This does not mean it isn't one of the most powerful pieces of literature that have survived from ancient times, and a recommended read. It felt more lyrical than Homer, and it had some truly great writing (Fagles' translation is as great as ever). The entirety of this work is set and bound in finding Aeneas in Italy, to claim a new home for his Trojans, to build a second Troy, to honour the memory of the fallen in the East. The best part of this epic is Aeneas' moral ambiguity. He's like a second Odysseus or Achilles, in that his actions are driven by his knowledge of his fate - which is repeated a little too often throughout the book - and since he is guided by the gods and the will of the universe, he does not have to think about the other side to his actions. He has to conquer Hesperia. He has to found Troy II. He is duty bound to fight the Italians - which, in all fairness, he avoids at all costs - because the gods say so. But the truth is that Aeneas and his Trojans are invaders. They arrive in peace, and they try to form ties of friendship with the natives, but they still have as a plan to settle as an independent city, a city commanded by the heavens to conquer, plunder and force its culture down the world's throat. Alba Longa, and its great daughter, Rome, might have been built in peace, but in their national consciousness the command was always war. In this view, Aeneas is the rightful ruler of Latium, and his descendants the rightful rulers of all. But from a Latin point of view, Aeneas is a refugee that has arrived on their land, somehow contrived to get the hand of a princess and a kingdom, a city that - unbeknownst to them - has war in its mind. Turnus, the antagonist, is nothing more than a man spurned by a king, robbed of his bride by a foreigner, and he tries to fight for what he believes is just. To the very last, when his sister Juturna fakes a signal from Jupiter to inspire the Italians to think they will win, Turnus believes he is on the side of justice. He calls himself "a second Achilles" , and the entire war for a woman is very Homeric - Lavinia is the new Helen, Aeneas is his brother-in-law Paris, and Turnus is more Menelaus than Achilles. So what we see, really, is a miniature Trojan War. And like the genuine deal, we can be rooting for one side or another: we can sing of just Achaeans and spurred Menelaus, Turnus and his attempts at defending his rights and the freedom of his people - or we can root for fallen Troy and the romance of Paris and Helen, for Aeneas' destined love and rule of Italy. Personally, I couldn't relate to Aeneas' cause as much as I'd like, even though Virgil throws in a forced "the people ache for Aeneas" justification for his conquering. In Carthage, Aeneas didn't need to war. He could rule besides Dido, and from her bones, instead of the horrible wars between her city and his, would rise an empire as powerful as Rome. Yet he is too stuck in the past, in the future he sees only the past reflected, a second Troy, a second War. If the Fates had left me free to live my life, to arrange my own affairs of my own free will, Troy is the city, first of all, that I'd safeguard, Troy and all that's left of my people whom I cherish. - Aeneas to Dido. But Fate, a tale three deities wrote, history that not even the gods are willing to confront or try to change, has decided blood and iron would build this empire, blood and iron would rule it. Gods are not gods if they themselves are ruled, and men are not men if they cannot try and build their own fate, like Turnus did. do the gods light this fire in our hearts, or does each man's mad desire become his god? - Nisus The justice and law of the Roman Empire, that vicious civilisation, which by force brought great advancements to the Mediterranean world, has never been more accurately depicted than in Aeneas' actions: veni, "vidi", vici

  17. 4 out of 5

    Ivana Books Are Magic

    When I think of Aeneid, I think of one Summer not too long and one bright fifteen-year-old I taught it to. By that time, I've read Aeneid a number of times and I had a very high opinion about it yet it was that experience of teaching it to somebody that made me see it in a whole new light. I felt like I was reading it for the first time, but still I could remember all those parts that originally moved me the most and it was interesting to observe my emotional reactions to it anew. For clearly, i When I think of Aeneid, I think of one Summer not too long and one bright fifteen-year-old I taught it to. By that time, I've read Aeneid a number of times and I had a very high opinion about it yet it was that experience of teaching it to somebody that made me see it in a whole new light. I felt like I was reading it for the first time, but still I could remember all those parts that originally moved me the most and it was interesting to observe my emotional reactions to it anew. For clearly, it was a work that was capable of moving me deeply. Tutoring can be quite challenging, as it often happens that those who search for a tutor are the ones who are having the most problems grasping the subject matter. Interesting thing about literature is that those students who refuse to read it are often the those who are best capable to understand it. Any brows raised yet? Who are writers after all? Aren’t they those who choose to search for additional meanings and interpretations of this world? Those who are not satisfied with it? Those who are ready to rebel? Don’t give me that ‘Ceaser -ordered -this -book -to- praise- the- Romans -so- the- writer- must - have- been -a -sell out’ thing. I couldn’t care less and I think it is irrelevant. A book is either a success or is it not. This hasn’t nothing to do with the fact whether it was commissioned or not. It has got to do with the person who wrote it, if the author is an artist determined to create art, then the book usually ends up being art. If you ask me, the fact that it is supposed to be written to praise ancient Romans is not important at all and it doesn’t take or add anything to/from Aeneid. Don’t use it as an excuse for giving up on reading it. If you don’t like it because it didn’t move you that’s fine, but I think this epic deserves a fair change. I believe it deserves to be read with an open mind and heart. It sometimes happens with classics that we forget to really read them. We read about them and by the time we get to reading them, we’re so engrossed with all that background information that we forget the fundamental joy of reading and that is reading for love of reading. What matters is that it is amazing epic poem written by a talented writer. In other words, it is the writer that matters. Speaking of writers, I imagine a lot of them were rebellious teens. Those straight A student will read the book, cover to cover and learn the basic historical facts about it, but will they be moved? Will they cry when Aeneid leaves a woman who loves him to fulfil what he sees as his duty? Will they offer new interpretations? Those that are really new and fresh, not a sum of something critically acclaimed literature professors shared most recently? Perhaps it is an appropriate irony that it often happens that intelligent but rebellious students avoid reading assignments, just because they find it hard to connect to the subject matter. Because they are put off by the fact that it is a classic. That is really understandable, because when one is fifteen, Aeneid may seem boring. That is why a good teacher must be prepared to invest a bit more time to get their students into reading it. Let’s take Aeneid, for example. Yes, we could talk about all kind of literary interpretations, about its background, about its historical context but wouldn’t it be nice to talk about it like readers? Like people who were genuinely moved by it? I must have read Aeneid at least twice that Summer. Surprisingly, trying hard to concrete on every important aspect of it didn’t take anything away from the joy of reading it. That is the marvellous thing about literature. It really doesn’t matter how long ago it was written, great literature always makes us feel a certain way. Time is the greatest distance between two places, said Tennessee Williams and while that is certainly the case when it comes to our daily lives and human relationship, such rules do not apply to literature. You know you won’t be less of an intellectual if you admit that you were actually moved by a literary classic. If you don’t open emotionally (and not just intellectually) to some piece of writing, you’re bound to miss out. I’m not going to say that every single verse in Aeneid left me in awe. The poetry is certainly beautiful, but the narrative, the characters and the overall story might feel a bit alien to a modern reader. Nevertheless, if one is willing to just forget about all that and READ it, I’m sure that one will find that the praise Aeneid has enjoyed is well deserved. Sure, there are events in it that aren’t terribly interesting and parts that were an obvious praise of ‘you-know-who’ and so on… That all being said, it is a book I enjoyed reading. It is a book I’ve read numerous times and that is the most honest of recommendations. Don’t take my word for it, go on and read it yourself, if you already haven’t. If you have, consider rereading it. Aren’t you curious why it is such a brilliant piece of writing? Why it inspired so many writers? Why it has been considered one of the most important works of European literature? Don’t be afraid to take up this one, find a good translation and enjoy. And if you happen to be able to read in original ( for there are people who can read in Latin), lucky you.

  18. 4 out of 5

    Parthiban Sekar

    The reason that I picked up this Latin epic book (Yes, what I read did not seem to be a poem, at least to me, but just a splendid translation) is the countless inter-textual references to this mythology book in the books I previously read. And I was not even half-satisfied to find none of them in this translation, in that sense. But, coming to this translation: "Can there be so much anger in the hearts of the heavenly gods?" The above line just summarizes the whole story of prophetic wanderings an The reason that I picked up this Latin epic book (Yes, what I read did not seem to be a poem, at least to me, but just a splendid translation) is the countless inter-textual references to this mythology book in the books I previously read. And I was not even half-satisfied to find none of them in this translation, in that sense. But, coming to this translation: "Can there be so much anger in the hearts of the heavenly gods?" The above line just summarizes the whole story of prophetic wanderings and wars of Aeneas, a Trojan who was forced to leave his own land Troy with his arms, men, father, and son, and a sign from the above. The divine interventions he encounters are always mixed blessings. While his mother Venus comes to aid during his hard times, the mother of gods, Juno always contrives some disastrous plan against him, reasons for which I am quite uncertain. "Women are unstable creatures, always changing!", says Mercury who comes in rescue of Aeneas from that nuptial trap of Dido. As Aeneas sets sailing, hardships, rough weather, and unfortunate deaths that befall him are countless, inexorable, and irrevocable. All credits to the relentless efforts of Juno and the oversight of the god of gods. When the rumor does her part to bring unforeseen troubles to the ill-fated and embittered Aeneas and his son Ascanius from faraway lands and distant enemies, the god of war, Mars feels a pinching responsibility for his divine position and breaks all hell loose in the name of war on the poor mortals who try to endure all difficulties hoping on the divine destiny. The wars, wanderings, and wraths seem to continue: Treaties are broken, wars are waged, lands are ransacked, ships are wrecked, fathers are broken, mothers are heart-wrenched, sons are killed, daughters are sullied and animals are slaughtered. Are the gods satisfied? What I like much about the book are the vivid narrations of misery of fathers who sent their sons to war, and mothers whose sons went to war without telling them. What I don't like about the book are the countless sacrifices, mostly oxen or sheep or swine or sometimes even opponent soldiers or anything with head or something in hundreds or more. The only times when there were no hints of sacrifices were when they coughed or farted. Oh, forgive me, it is just my level of understanding on sacrifices or anything of that sort is very low. So, if you want to know what happens to the guy who gets the sword from Orlando Bloom i.e. Paris from the TROY movie at the end, you might want to check this out. Well, hey! there is HOMER, too!

  19. 5 out of 5

    Jill

    Ok but this was so much better than the Iliad or the Odyssey... Aeneas is the only main hero from an epic I didn't despise with every fiber of my being (except Hector I adored Hector)

  20. 5 out of 5

    Nikki

    I'm not sure if this is the translation I read back when I did Classics at GCSE and A Level. It seems familiar, but of course, the story would be and two different close translations might still be similar. Anyway, with my course on Tragic Love in the Trojan War, I've had the urge to reread The Aeneid all term. I can't imagine the loss to the world that it would have been if Vergil's wishes had been carried out when it came to the burning of the manuscript. Parts of The Aeneid are just beautiful I'm not sure if this is the translation I read back when I did Classics at GCSE and A Level. It seems familiar, but of course, the story would be and two different close translations might still be similar. Anyway, with my course on Tragic Love in the Trojan War, I've had the urge to reread The Aeneid all term. I can't imagine the loss to the world that it would have been if Vergil's wishes had been carried out when it came to the burning of the manuscript. Parts of The Aeneid are just beautiful -- Homer's work has its own vitality and its own robust beauty, but not the polish of Vergil's work. There's a lot of gorgeous metaphors and similes here, things that work just right, and moments of tenderness that you wouldn't expect in the middle of what is admittedly a rather gory epic. Aeneas' attempts to embrace his dead (and therefore ghostly) wife and father are just, oh, and the little touches of humanity we get from a lot of the characters -- Amata pleading with Turnus to stay safe, Lavinia blushing, Dido falling so hopelessly in love... It's an incredibly rich text and there's so much to enjoy about it. I should read a good poetic translation at some point -- I think I own one -- but in the meantime even the prose translation, which I imagine was far from an ideal way to translate Vergil's intentions, is lovely.

  21. 5 out of 5

    Joy

    Disclaimer: I rushed/skimmed through this for a Greek Mythology course. It was interesting to read an epic that centered around Roman history and mythology rather than Greek. Will probably reread at some point. Recommended for lovers of classics and mythology. 3.25

  22. 4 out of 5

    Dan Weaver

    A gifted poet's account of playing Mario Brothers to level 7. Expect a lot of "then Aeneas was told he needed to fetch a golden bough. But he could only obtain the bough if he completed such-and-such. So he did. Then he went to the underground world and gave the bough to the boatman, and the boatman therefore let him cross the river..." but with lyric flourish. It's maybe not Mario, but some side-scrolling platformer, definitely. If I understand correctly, Virgil wrote it by order of Caesar August A gifted poet's account of playing Mario Brothers to level 7. Expect a lot of "then Aeneas was told he needed to fetch a golden bough. But he could only obtain the bough if he completed such-and-such. So he did. Then he went to the underground world and gave the bough to the boatman, and the boatman therefore let him cross the river..." but with lyric flourish. It's maybe not Mario, but some side-scrolling platformer, definitely. If I understand correctly, Virgil wrote it by order of Caesar Augustus to a.) connect him, CA, to the line of the founder of Rome thus giving him special first citizen status if not divine right to rule b.) connect the Romans to the Greeks, toward whom they had an inferiority complex and c.) justify imposing Roman culture on barbarian cultures as imposing order. Virgil never finished it. Before he died he ordered the incomplete manuscript to be destroyed. This book shouldn't even exist!

  23. 4 out of 5

    Nelson Zagalo

    Quanto mais Poemas Épicos leio mais me convenço da nossa irrealidade, ou da nossa capacidade para criar, literalmente, a realidade em que vivemos. Estes poemas são a base cultural de toda a sociedade Ocidental, nascidos da oralidade, sobreviventes pelo registo em texto, formadores de grande parte da história antiga que hoje conhecemos, ou da nossa Mitologia. Temos deuses que agem como humanos, e temos humanos que seriam especiais por serem filhos desses deuses, temos espaços e eventos imaginados Quanto mais Poemas Épicos leio mais me convenço da nossa irrealidade, ou da nossa capacidade para criar, literalmente, a realidade em que vivemos. Estes poemas são a base cultural de toda a sociedade Ocidental, nascidos da oralidade, sobreviventes pelo registo em texto, formadores de grande parte da história antiga que hoje conhecemos, ou da nossa Mitologia. Temos deuses que agem como humanos, e temos humanos que seriam especiais por serem filhos desses deuses, temos espaços e eventos imaginados que serviram o perpetuar da imaginação desses tempos até aos nossos dias. Ler estes poemas é uma experiência distinta e exótica, porque se é tudo fantasia, dando conta de grandes irrealidades, é ao mesmo tempo tudo História, pedras de texto efetivas que sustentam toda a nossa literatura, toda a nossa cultura, tudo aquilo que somos hoje. [Ler texto com imagens no VI em https://virtual-illusion.blogspot.pt/...] "Eneias foge de Troia que Arde" (1598) de Federico Barocci, (Abertura do Livro I) Para compreender a ideia basta pensar no facto de Troia não ter nunca existido enquanto cidade, nem sequer enquanto reino. Que os seus criadores e reis, filhos de Deuses, naturalmente também nunca existiram. Contudo quando realizamos pesquisas sobre os mesmos, as suas histórias desenrolam-se em teias de infinitos detalhes, elementos captados de uma miríade de artefactos criados ao longo de milénios, não apenas textos — nomeadamente o chamado Ciclo Épico do qual fazem parte os poemas basilares da "Ilíada" e "Odisseia" e ainda um conjunto de outros poemas semi-destruídos ou perdidos — registos de histórias orais, mas também imagens — desenhadas em vasos e frescos — e muitas esculturas que foram servindo a construção de mitos, a sua promoção e distribuição, e depois a sua preservação até aos nossos dias. As várias cidades e povos confundem-se entre realidade e mito — Troia, Dardânia, Esparta, Itaca, Grécia Antiga, Roma Antiga, etc. — com personagens que fundem deuses — os doze deuses gregos: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Atena, Ares, Deméter, Apolo, Ártemis, Hefesto, Afrodite, Hermes e Dioniso; e os correspondentes doze deuses romanos: Júpiter, Juno, Neptuno, Minerva, Marte, Ceres, Febo, Diana, Vulcano, Vénus, Mercúrio e Baco — e humanos — Menelau, Helena, Paris, Heitor, Aquiles, Agamemnon, Ulisses, Eneias, Priamo, Turno, Latino, etc. Nem sequer os criadores escapam a esta fusão entre ficção e realidade, desde logo com a dúvida sobre Homero: terá existido?; e se existiu terá escrito a “Ilíada” e a “Odisseia”?; e se escreveu não seriam estas apenas histórias orais criadas ao longo de milénios precedentes? [imagem] Eneias carregando Anquises, vaso de 470 A.C. A “Eneida” tem uma génese menos complexa, mais tradicional, já que surge como encomenda por parte do imperador Augusto a Virgilio. 600 anos depois da "Ilíada" e "Odisseia" um poeta numa sociedade, a romana, que preservava muito os registos e por isso temos muito mais conhecimento sobre o que se passou, tenta responder à génese de Itália partindo de Troia. Mas porquê voltar a Troia, é a dúvida com que se fica, mais ainda pelo facto de Augusto pedir a Virgilio uma história que simbolizasse o nascimento de Itália, como é que então essa história poderia apresentar um estrangeiro, vindo de Troia, a derrubar os Latinos. É verdade que Augusto põe fim à República e inicia o Império, tornando-se no primeiro Imperador de Roma, mas ainda assim Augusto era filho de Roma, não tinha qualquer conexão com o exterior. Augusto terá pedido um texto com as qualidades da “Ilíada” e “Odisseia”, para enaltecer cantando o poder do imperador, o que mostra também o lado propagandístico destes Poemas Épicos. Mas Virgilio responde a esse dilema criando uma nova ramificação no mito de Eneias: a cidade de Troia teria sido fundada por Dardano, que segundo os mitos romanos seria originário de Itália. É preciso esclarecer que apesar de arma de propaganda, se a “Eneida” sobreviveu, não como texto escrito mas como parte do nosso imaginário cultural, deve-o mais a Virgilio e menos a quem o pediu e pagou, desde a estrutura à qualidade poética. No primeiro campo, Virgílo dividiu o seu poema em duas partes: na primeira (Livro I a VI) temos a jornada de Eneias para Itália, colado ao regresso de Ulisses de Troia para Itaca, espelhando assim a narrativa da “Odisseia”; na segunda metade (Livro VII a Livro XII) temos a luta entre Eneias e Turno, numa aproximação à luta entre Aquiles e Heitor, e assim emulando a “Ilíada”. Esta colagem não é meramente estrutural, Virgilio socorre-se das estruturas de Homero para elaborar novas linhas narrativas, não apenas dando conta da relação entre o fim de Troia e o nascimento de Itália, mas também porque vai relacionar toda a ficção mitológica com factos reais do seu tempo, servindo os interesses de Augusto, mas servindo-nos também enquanto registo histórico. Parte 1: Jornada para Itália I - Eneias naufraga ao largo de Cartago II - Eneias narra a Dido o último dia de Troia III - Eneias narra a Dido as suas viagens rumo à Itália IV - Os amores de Dido e seu fim trágico V - Os jogos fúnebres VI- Descida de Eneias ao Mundo dos Mortos Parte 2: Guerra em Itália VII- Chegada ao Lácio VIII- Evandro. Descrição do escudo de Eneias IX- Ataque ao acampamento troiano X- Façanhas e morte de Palante XI- Funerais dos guerreiros. XII- Combate de Eneias e de Turno. [imagem] "Eneias derrota Turno" (1688) Luca Giordano (Fecho do Livro XII) Impressiona ver como um texto escrito séculos depois, retoma personagens, eventos e factos, para dar vida a uma nova narrativa capaz de suster o nosso interesse, e foi isso que me levou a questionar de onde vinha tudo isto, como e porquê. A resposta volta sempre a um mesmo local, a imaginária Troia, cidade na Terra nascida da vontade de deuses, envolta numa guerra de 10 anos alimentada por esses mesmos deuses, que defendiam lados diferentes (como se pôde ver na “Ilíada”). Este mundo ficcional terá então surgido na forma oral, discutindo-se ainda hoje se a “Ilíada” e a “Odisseia” não teriam surgido na forma de poema por serem estruturas mais dadas à memorização de quem os relatava oralmente. Aos dois grandes poemas, outros se juntam ainda na forma de poemas épicos mas entretanto perdidos — Nostoi, Telegonia ou Titanomaquia, formando o que se chama hoje de Ciclo Épico. Se estes apontam para o período VIII a VI A.C., passados quatro séculos voltaríamos a encontrar menções ao mesmo universo, alargando as suas histórias, já não meramente na forma oral mas como performance teatral, nas tragédias de Sófocles, Ésquilo e Euripedes. E passados outros tantos séculos, Virgilio retoma Troia, agora na forma textual, para ampliar a mitologia já numa abordagem romana. [imagem] Mapa homérico. Mostra a bacia que coloca frente a frente a Grécia e a Turquia, onde ficaria a cidade de Troia, podendo ver-se os locais onde foram morrendo os vários heróis. Fonte Ler a “Eneida” requer pelo menos a leitura da “Ilíada” e “Odisseia”, e alguma pesquisa histórico-mitológica, porque só assim o que vamos lendo ganha sentido. No fundo falamos do primeiro grande artefacto transmedia. Se o universo original era oral, e tinha já sido expandido na forma teatral, foi Virgilio quem lhe deu forma textual, e assim espalhou a história de Troia por três meios diferentes, ainda que hoje a eles todos possamos aceder em texto. Por outro lado, o que se conta está intimamente ligado ao que já foi contado mas vai para além do mesmo, dando conta da premissa base de qualquer obra transmedia, que é a expansão narrativa. Repare-se como a "Eneida" não se limita a expandir num sentido sequencial, por exemplo na viagem para Itália, Eneias passa por alguns locais por onde Ulisses tinha passado, encontrando não apenas personagens desse locais, como encontrando um amigo de Ulisses deixado para trás na sua luta contra os Ciclopes, funcionando como um grande momento transmedia, pela recompensa narrativa que oferece em explicações adicionais sobre eventos ocorridos numa outra narrativa. [vídeo] "Troia" (2014) de Wolfgang Petersen Mas Troia não se fica pela Oralidade, Teatro e Texto, ao longo dos séculos e desde muito cedo, foram sendo criadas imagens em vasos e frescos, ainda que mais ilustrativas, assim como esculturas, não só de personagens mas de cenas complexas, e se quisermos, como cereja em cima de todo este bolo, passados mais de 27 séculos o universo continua vivo, tendo sido ainda no ano de 2004, posto em cena, num filme que por não querer versar apenas sobre um dos poemas, foi dedicado a "Troia", e junta nele mesmo várias histórias espalhadas por vários textos. E se existe quem tenha apontado erros de leitura histórica ao filme, eu, e na senda do transmedia que refiro acima, vejo esses erros mais como parte da continuada expansão narrativa desse universo imortal. [imagem] Pequeno apanhado que fiz do universo transmedia desenvolvido em redor do tema da Guerra de Troia E por fim, e porque a ficção/realidade é nestas leituras uma constante imensidão imaginária, e porque este texto é sobre a “Eneida” e Virgilio, não podemos esquecer que se Virgilio foi um dos grandes impulsionadores da mitologia, ao preservar e estender o Universo de Troia, ele próprio acabaria por tornar-se personagem ficcional e principal de um outro grande épico, que a estes se liga, escrito 1500 anos depois, a “Divina Comédia” de Dante, que conto ler de seguida. Publicado com imagens e links no VI https://virtual-illusion.blogspot.pt/...

  24. 4 out of 5

    p.

    The Aeneid continues the story of what happened after the Greeks had taken Troy; it tells the story of Aeneas, a Trojan hero who had lost all hope after witnessing his city and his king devastated by what we know as The Trojan Horse, very well crafted by Ulysses and his people — which reminds me of this part in The Odyssey in which a nymph (I think) tells Ulysses how skilful he is when it comes to deceiving; it tells the story of an exile who after a divine promise of a new nation regains his st The Aeneid continues the story of what happened after the Greeks had taken Troy; it tells the story of Aeneas, a Trojan hero who had lost all hope after witnessing his city and his king devastated by what we know as The Trojan Horse, very well crafted by Ulysses and his people — which reminds me of this part in The Odyssey in which a nymph (I think) tells Ulysses how skilful he is when it comes to deceiving; it tells the story of an exile who after a divine promise of a new nation regains his strength, takes his family with him and goes after wherever the gods may guide him. At this point it's pretty much as if Homer had written the epic, but then new characters are introduced, characters that might be as influential as any former, such as Dido, queen of Carthage, who aids the wandering Trojans in their misfortune. "Not ignorant of ill I learn to aid distress." But then she falls in love with Aeneas and he falls in love with her — but actually, I think he just liked her because he thought Carthage was the land promised by the gods, for the one who really was in love was her, to the point that she commits suicide (in a very poetical way, I must say), after the Trojan hero flees from the queen's land when he's advised to hurry and find Italy, where he must found a new nation. This is told in Book IV, one of my favourites (the other being Book VI and XII), and the only thing I didn't like about it is that it is really short: it sings so briefly how all this romance happens, though it's always like this in the whole poem, for one minute Iulus is just a little kid who can barely catch up on his father's steps while fleeing from Troy, and then he's an all fighting adolescent in the last war. But I think the few lines Virgil wrote concerning Dido and Aeneas are beautiful enough to captivate the reader making clear that quality means more than quantity; and then one understands why it took the author so long to publish his work and why he was very hard to please when it came to what shall be brought not only to Augustus but to the entire world. O relics once dear, while God and Fate allowed, take my spirit, and release me from my woes! My life is done and I have finished the course that Fortune gave; and now in majesty my shade shall pass beneath the earth. Like I already said, Book VI was also one of my favourites and it is considered the center of the poem, not only mathematically (the poem consists of twelve books), but also because I'd say it has been one of the most influential in the history of literature. The book tells Aeneas descent into the Avernus ushered by the Cumaean Sybil all the way to the Elysian Fields where the soul of his father rests; and while they travel along the underworld, the Sybil tells Aeneas how that world is constituted judging by each soul's deeds. Does this sound familiar? Say for example a book in which an exile is guided through the underworld in search of his beloved? Bingo! It's The Divine Comedy. Reading this definitely blew my mind because I could see why Dante chose Virgil as his guide in his well-known masterpiece; but also because I realised much of the greco-latin myths I knew have the weight they have because of Virgil's creation, like The Trojan Horse, or even the underworld itself and those who rule there. The Aeneid really made me connect some dots, like a very particular part when Aeneas is trying to convince his father to flee with him, but the latter tells him he's too old already and death might suit him better. But then something happens: Anchises receives a divine sign that tells him that it's time to overcome his sorrows and accompany his son into a new start. It's something that is amazingly similar to the Pentecost versicles in The Bible. Take a look: "From above the head of Iulus a light tongue of flame was seen to shed a gleam and, harmless in its touch, lick his soft locks and pasture round his temples. […] with sudden crash there was thunder on the left and a star shot from heaven, gliding through the darkness, and drawing a fiery trail amid a flood of light […] At this, indeed, my father was overcome and, rising to his feet, salutes the gods, and worships the holy star." — Virgil. The Aeneid. "And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance." — Acts 2:2-4 (KJV) Strange yet fantastic, isn't it? Somehow I feel that Virgil's work was the guideline for a whole new era, not only in the Western Canon (in which Homer is also included), but also in Christianity. We can read how Aeneas surrendered his fate to Divinity after he had lost everything but a little bit of hope, which is one of the things that Christians would preach about later on. I don't mean to say though that Aeneas is the establisher of this doctrine, but it's something great to reflect upon when one thinks about the origins of Christianity and its merging points with earlier cultures. There's also the fact that Aeneas was welcomed with war in the land where he was supposed to build a new empire (augured in Vulcan's shield), and there's a vesicle in Luke 4:24 that says "And he said, Verily I say unto you, No prophet is accepted in his own country." Generally speaking, reading such a work of art has been a very… cultivating experience, and it is definitely a must-read. Just ignore what people say about this being a fanfic. It's not. Or maybe technically it is, but personally, when I think of one of those things I think of vampires' stories written by teenagers; while this is a masterpiece written by a very meticulous poet who would later influence many magnificent writers such as Milton. I also disagree with some of the things I've read about Virgil plagiarising Homer's work. C'mon! Of course he had to mention the latter's characters and even try to keep his style as accurate as possible since he was writing a tribute for the Roman roots along with Homer's epics, for whom the author of The Aeneid was very respectful. Each author had their own personal print (while Homer's cyclops were more terrifying, Virgil described them with a compassionate pinch as lonely sorrowful creatures because of what Ulysses did to one of them). Besides, Virgil made his own contribution to greco-roman culture and mythology, and to literature as a whole — and I don't see fanfics achieving this, do you? There is a great difference between plagiarism and influence.

  25. 5 out of 5

    Mike (the Paladin)

    When in high school I read the Iliad and Odyssey. After completing them I had to run down Virgil's Aeneid. If you've ever read these books the word pictures of this epic story (Greek myth and then Roman) will I believe be somewhat burned into your mind. I doubt you'll ever have clearer ones. Though written centuries ago the epic tales of mythological gods, goddesses, and heroes will stay with you. For me also the "shift" from Greek characters to Roman (especially in the case of the mythological When in high school I read the Iliad and Odyssey. After completing them I had to run down Virgil's Aeneid. If you've ever read these books the word pictures of this epic story (Greek myth and then Roman) will I believe be somewhat burned into your mind. I doubt you'll ever have clearer ones. Though written centuries ago the epic tales of mythological gods, goddesses, and heroes will stay with you. For me also the "shift" from Greek characters to Roman (especially in the case of the mythological deities) was extremely, what(?) interesting(?). That might be the word. the way Homer sees Aphrodite and Virgil sees Venus are, different. Maybe complimentary would be an applicable word, though it seems to me that they had at times radically different views of them. Where I went away from Homer picturing Aphrodite, Ares and their allies in a more negative light, Virgil seemed to see that particular party in a more sympathetic light. As one view of the "heroic" mythical past this is an enjoyable and (dare I say it?) worthwhile read. Also I must admit, I always enjoyed fanciful type literature (and stories). As a kid it was harder to find stories of swords, daring do magic and mayhem than it is now and mythology served quite well. Like a lot of people (including Tolkien and Lewis) I preferred Norse mythology, but Greek and Roman would do in a pinch. So, think about it, erudition and high adventure all in one book, what's not to like? It's a win/win.

  26. 5 out of 5

    Steven Walle

    I have always loved this poem. This is argueabely the best poem ever written. This poem was composed by Virgil a poet from 29 BCE. I enjoyed this translation very much. I recommend this book to all. Enjoy and Be Blessed. Diamond

  27. 4 out of 5

    J. Sebastian

    Mandelbaum’s translation is beautiful. After the fall of Troy, Aeneas and his Trojans strive through tremendous pain and hardship to find their way home. Destiny and fate are always in view behind the suffering and the endless journey, and a beauty that is rich and deep emerges everywhere. It is the blending of destiny with heroic epic poetry that gives meaning and beauty to life, no matter how hard it can become. Though Aeneas wanders through many lands, the great women of the book emerge as la Mandelbaum’s translation is beautiful. After the fall of Troy, Aeneas and his Trojans strive through tremendous pain and hardship to find their way home. Destiny and fate are always in view behind the suffering and the endless journey, and a beauty that is rich and deep emerges everywhere. It is the blending of destiny with heroic epic poetry that gives meaning and beauty to life, no matter how hard it can become. Though Aeneas wanders through many lands, the great women of the book emerge as landmarks on his journey home. This begins with the loss of his wife Creusa, whom Aeneas loses when they are escaping the Greeks and the burning ruin of Troy; he turns, much like Orpheus when Eurydike is following him out of the underworld, and discovers that she is gone. Rushing back to find her Aeneas encounters Creusa's ghost; it is too late, but she tells him that another wife awaits him in Italy, and Creusa submits to fate. There follows the tragedy of Dido, who falls in love with Aeneas when he is shipwrecked in Carthage. He (in submission to the ordained fates) abandons her cruelly, and continues on his journey. Halfway through the book Aeneas will descend into the underworld following the Sybil, priestess of Apollo (as Theseus entered the Labyrinth with the help of Ariadne’s thread). In the second half of the book the great heroine is Camilla, whose tragic death (like that of Dido) can move deep currents of pity in the reader. Foreshadowed from the very beginning of the poem, Lavinia, the promised bride awaits for him at the end of his journies; she is betrothed to another, and this will cause another war before the foundations of Rome can be laid. Some examples of the happy success of Mandelbaum’s English translation: near the end of Book I, the scene is set thus for a great story, just before Dido asks Aeneas to tell the tale of his trials and wanderings: And at the first pause in the feast the tables are cleared away. They fetch enormous bowls and crown the wine with wreaths. The uproar grows; it swells through all the palace; voices roll across the ample halls; the lamps are kindled–– they hang from ceilings rich with golden panels–– and flaming torches overcome the night. And then the queen called for a golden cup, massive with jewels, that Belus once had used, Belus and all the Tyrian line; she filled that golden cup with wine. The hall fell still. (I. 1008 - 1018) Late in the poem, the young hero Pallas exhorts his men, who are being routed, thus: “Where are you running, comrades? By your valor and by the name of your own King Evander, by victories you have won and by my hope that now would match my father’s fame, you cannot trust to your feet. The sword must hack a passage through Latin ranks. And where their mass is thickest, there, there is where your noble homeland asks that you and your chief, Pallas, find a path. There are no gods against us: mortals, we are driven back by mortal enemies; we have as many hands and lives as they. Just see, the waters hem us in with their great sea wall; there is no retreat by land. Then shall we seek the deep or Troy’s new camp?” This said, he charged against the crowding Latins. (X. 510 - 524) He saves the battle here, but it costs him everything. Perhaps the most amazing scene, full of wonder, is when Aeneas begins to weep, beholding the relief sculpture that decorates Juno’s temple in Carthage; this depicts scenes from the Trojan war in which he took part; he sees himself therein, his friends, his former king, his famous enemies. Here in this strange new land, Troy gone, he weeps, feeding "his soul on what is nothing but a picture” (I. 659), discovering that there is nowhere that the story of Troy is not known. But there are so many rich, deep, meaningful, and wonderful passages that to tell them all is to rewrite the whole Aeneid. I will look forward to reading it again and again; it gets better every time.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Jane

    Having read Broch's The Death of Virgil earlier this year, I felt I should read The Aeneid, especially as I never studied Latin III, where we would have read it in the original. I'm glad I read it now for the first time, as I don't think I would have appreciated its richness, creativity, and psychological insight years ago. The story is quickly told: Aeneas flees Troy after the Trojan War and he and his companions seek a new land to settle, in Italy. Juno opposes them, so they are forced on a lo Having read Broch's The Death of Virgil earlier this year, I felt I should read The Aeneid, especially as I never studied Latin III, where we would have read it in the original. I'm glad I read it now for the first time, as I don't think I would have appreciated its richness, creativity, and psychological insight years ago. The story is quickly told: Aeneas flees Troy after the Trojan War and he and his companions seek a new land to settle, in Italy. Juno opposes them, so they are forced on a long voyage until reaching their destination. They must fight to gain the land where they will found their new city. Yes, you could call it a propaganda piece; but oh, how marvellous! In Book VI, Aeneas journeys to the Elysian Fields where his dead father's shade tells him of the glories of the Rome to come. The translation was very readable and evocative of the time and place. I liked the use of the present tense to describe the action [the 'historical present']; to me, it gave it immediacy. I appreciated the lengthy introduction by Bernard Knox and the Postscript by the translator, Robert Fagles. More than just the text, I highly recommend all supplementary material. My favorite parts were Book VI and Book X [the main battle against Latium]. I could almost call Aeneas the distant ancestor of one of the Roman soldier-heroes in today's Roman military novels. Certainly, the fighting was as bloody. The Aeneid is a must-read!

  29. 5 out of 5

    Sylvain Reynard

    Don't be fooled by cheap imitations. This is the real Virgil and his lyrical account of the events that transpired after the fall of Troy. (Beware of Greeks bearing gifts) Read this work and discover why Virgil was the poet laureate of Italy, only to be replaced by Dante. And read it, too, to discover why Beatrice asked Virgil to guide her Beloved through the treacherous Inferno ...

  30. 5 out of 5

    Dimitris

    Having just read this Masterpiece of Western Civilization, even in a translation in very questionable modern Greek of the '50s, made me realize that I should be using the word "Epic" in describing other books less frequently. This is the first and only Epic I have ever read in my miserable life.

Add a review

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Loading...
We use cookies to give you the best online experience. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy.